• USAID's Alternative Development policy in Colombia

    A critical analysis
    Ricardo Vargas
    TNI Drug Policy Briefing Nr. 38
    October 2011

    Alternative Development (AD) must not be part of a militarised security strategy, which is the predominant approach in Colombia. Instead of simply attempting to reduce the area planted with illicit crops, Alternative Development programmes should operate within the framework of a rural and regional development plan.

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  • Amphetamine Type Stimulants and Harm Reduction

    Experiences from Myanmar, Thailand and Southern China
    Tom Blickman
    TNI Drug Policy Briefing Nr. 37
    October 2011

    Little is known about the methamphetamine market in the region, but there are strong indications that the situation is deteriorating with substances becoming stronger, methods of use more harmful and the number of users steadily increasing. There is an urgent need for donors and governments to introduce effective harm reduction measures.

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  • How to determine personal use in drug legislation

    The “threshold controversy” in the light of the Italian experience
    Grazia Zuffa
    Series on Legislative Reform of Drug Policies Nr. 15
    August 2011

    Distinguishing between drug possession for personal use and supply and trafficking is widely acknowledged as one of the most difficult and controversial issues facing drug legislators and policy makers. To address the problem, two solutions are typically enacted: the threshold scheme and the "flexible" model.

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  • Conviction by Numbers

    Threshold Quantities for Drug Policy
    Genevieve Harris
    Series on Legislative Reform of Drug Policies Nr. 14
    May 2011

    Threshold quantities (TQs) for drug law and policy are being experimented with across many jurisdictions. States seem attracted to their apparent simplicity and use them to determine, for example, whether: a possession or supply offence is made out (e.g. Greece); a matter should be diverted away from the criminal justice system (e.g. Portugal); or a case should fall within a certain sentencing range (e.g. UK).

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  • Alternative development from the perspective of Colombian farmers

    Susana Ojeda
    TNI Drug Policy Briefing Nr. 36
    May 2011

    Alternative Development programmes have been widely discussed from the point of view of experts, technocrats, politicians and academics, with advocates and detractors debating whether such programmes contribute to decreasing the cultivation of illegal crops. However, little is known about the opinions of the people targeted by these programmes and the implications that they have for their daily lives.

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  • The Obama Administration’s drug control policy on auto-pilot

    Coletta Youngers
    IDPC Briefing Paper
    April 2011

    In a widely watched You Tube video, U.S. President Barack Obama is asked whether or not the drug war may in fact be counterproductive. Instead of the resounding NO that would have come from any of his recent predecessors, Obama responded: “I think this is an entirely legitimate topic for debate.” He then qualified his remarks by adding, “I am not in favor of legalization.” Nonetheless, even acknowledging the legitimacy of debate on U.S. drug policy is a significant shift from the past, when successive administrations stifled discussion and routinely labeled anyone promoting alternative approaches to the socalled U.S. “war on drugs” as dangerous and surreptitiously promoting massive drug use and poisoning America’s youth.

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  • Kratom in Thailand

    Decriminalisation and Community Control?
    Pascal Tanguay
    Series on Legislative Reform of Drug Policies Nr. 13
    April 2011

    In early 2010, the Thai Office of the Narcotics Control Board (ONCB) developed a policy proposal to review different aspects of the criminal justice process in relation to drug cases. The possibility of decriminalising the indigenous psychoactive plant, kratom, was included in the ONCB’s proposal for consideration by the Ministry of Justice.  This briefing paper provides an overview of issues related to kratom legislation and policy in Thailand as well as a set of conclusions and recommendations to contribute to a reassessment of the current ban on kratom in Thailand and the region.

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  • Fifty Years of the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs: A Reinterpretation

    David Bewley-Taylor Martin Jelsma
    Series on Legislative Reform of Drug Policies Nr. 12
    March 2011

    This year marks the 50th anniversary of the United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, signed on 30 March 1961. 73 countries were represented at the conference that took place in New York from 24 January to 25 March 1961, which sought to lay a new solid foundation for drug control in the post-war United Nations era. The aim was to replace the multiple existing multilateral treaties in the field with a single instrument as well as to reduce the number of international treaty organs concerned with the control of narcotic drugs, and to make provisions for the control of the production of raw materials of narcotic drugs. The Single Convention entered into force on 13 December 1964, having met the requirement of forty state ratifications.

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  • Lifting the ban on coca chewing

    Bolivia’s proposal to amend the 1961 Single Convention
    Martin Jelsma
    Series on Legislative Reform of Drug Policies Nr. 11
    March 2011

    January 31 marked the close of the 18-month period during which countries could submit objections to Bolivia’s proposal to remove from the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs the obligation to abolish the practice of coca chewing.

    A total of eighteen countries formally notified the UN Secretary General that they could not accept the proposed amendment: the United States, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Canada, Denmark, Germany, the Russian Federation, Japan, Singapore, Slovakia, Estonia, France, Italy, Bulgaria, Latvia, Malaysia, Mexico and Ukraine.

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  • On the Frontline of Northeast India

    Evaluating a Decade of Harm Reduction in Manipur and Nagaland
    TNI Drug Policy Briefing Nr. 35
    March 2011

    Conflict and underdevelopment in the region have contributed to drug consumption and production, and are hampering access to treatment, care and support for drug users. Obstacles include curfews imposed by the national government, as well as punitive actions by armed opposition groups against drug users, and discrimination and stigmatization from the local population.

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